Compassion and Support


Patients & Families


  • This section includes carefully selected links to references pertaining to the Community-wide End-of-Life Community Initiative, Advance Care Planning, Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST), palliative care, Physicians Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) and the National Quality Forum.

    If you wish to share references on this web site relevant to the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program or other related topics, please forward the reference to

Community-wide End-of-life/Palliative Care Initiative

The Community-Wide End-of-life/Palliative Care Initiative was launched in May 2001. The original vision for the Rochester community has been expanded and envisions that New York State will be a preeminent leader in advocating for facilitated discussions on planning for end-of-life care and for ensuring excellence in the provision of End-of-Life/Palliative Care, serving all segments of our community.

Advance Care Planning

Advance Care Planning is a process of planning for future medical care if a person is unable to make health care decisions. It involves identification of a trusted individual to make health care decisions, clarification of values, beliefs and goals of care and putting these wishes in writing.

Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST)

MOLST in New York State (NYS) is an approved Physicians Order for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) Paradigm Program.  References are presented in chronological order with most recent first:

  • Bomba, P.A., & Karmel, J. B. (2015). Medical, ethical and legal obligations to honor individual preferences near the end of life. Health Law Journal, 20(2), 28-33.
  • Bomba, P.A., & Orem, K.G. (2015). Lessons learned from New York’s community approach to advance care planning and MOLST. Annals of Palliative Medicine, 4(1), 10-21.
  • Bomba, PA and Orem, K.  2012.  eMOLST and Electronic Health Records.  Health Law Journal 17(2): 77-83.  Published by the New York State Bar Association.
  • Karmel, J. B., & Lispon, K. (2011). Honoring patient preferences at the end of life: the MOLST process and the Family Health Care Decisions Act. Health Law Journal, 16(1), 36-43.
  • Bomba, P.A.  Discussing Patient Preferences and End-of-Life Care.  Journal of the Monroe County Medical Society, 7th District Branch, MSSNY.  2011; April 2011: 12-15.
  • Bomba, P.A., Leven, D.C., Morrissey, M.B. (2011).   Key Role of Social Work in Effective Communication and Conflict Resolution Process:  Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) Program in New York and shared Medical Decision Making at End-of-Life.  Journal of Social Work in End-of-Life & Palliative Care, January - March 2011, Volume VII, Issue 1, 56-82.
  • Bomba, P.A.  Landmark Legislation in New York Affirms Benefits of Two-Step Approach to Advance Care Planning Including MOLST:  A Model of Shared, Informed Medical Decision-Making and Honoring Patient Preferences for Care at the End-of-Life.  Widener Law Review, 2011, Volume XVII Issue 2, 475-500.
  • Grimaldi, J.D., Lawlor T.R. (2009) MOLST: New York State's Medical Orders to Honor the Wishes of a Seriously Ill Patient.  NYSBA Elder Law Attorney 19:2,
    15 - 17. 
  • Bomba, P.A.  Producer MOLST DVD - Informational and educational curriculum:  Writing Your Final Chapter:  Know Your Choices.....Share Your Wishes" and "Honoring Patient Preferences:  The Role of Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) in New York State."
  • Fairbanks, R.J., Shah, M.N., Lerner, E.B., Ilangovan, K., Pennington, E.C., Schneider, S.M. (2007) Epidemiology and Outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Rochester, New York. Resuscitation. 72, 415-424.
  • Bomba, P.A., Vermilyea, D. (2006) Integrating POLST Into Palliative Care Guidelines:  A Paradigm Shift in Advance Care Planning in Oncology. Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network 4:8, 819-829.
  • Bomba, P.A.  (2006) Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST):  A Paradigm Shift in Advance Care Planning.  Health Law Journal, 2006; 11:3,
    39 - 51.
  • Bomba, P.A., Caprio, T.V., Gillespie, S.M., Richardson, K. Community Implementation of the Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) to Improve Advance Care Directives. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 55(1) S44.
  • Olden A., Quill T., Ladwig, S. End-of-life Care and MOLST Completion. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 55(1) S159.

Palliative Care

  • Bomba, P.A.  Enabling the transition to hospice care through effective palliative care.  The Case Manager.  2005; 16:48 - 52.

Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST)

The Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (POLST) is a process that translates seriously ill patient's goals for care into easily identifiable, portable and renewable medical orders that follow the patient across care settings.        Find out if your State has a POLST Paradigm Program.

  • Bomba, P.A., Kemp, M. and Black, J.S.  POLST: An improvement over traditional advance directives.  Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine.  July 2012, Vol. 79, Issue 7, p. 457-64.
  • Hickman, S.E. , Nelson, C.A., Moss, A.H., Tolle, S.W., Perrin, N.A. and Hammes, B.J.  The Consistency Between Treatments Provided to Nursing Facility Residents and Orders on the Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment Form.  Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.  November 2011, Volume 59, Issue 11, p. 2091-99.
  • Sabatino, C.P., Karp, N.  Improving Advanced Illness Care:  The Evolution of State POLST Programs.  AARP Public Policy Institute.  Copyright 2011, AARP.
  • Bomba, P.A., Sabatino, C.P.  POLST:  An Emerging Model for End-of-Life Care Planning.  The ElderLaw Report.  February 2009, VolumeXX, Number 7, 1-5.
  • Hickman, E.S., Sabatino, C.P., Moss, A.H., Wehrle Nester, J. (Spring 2008).  The POLST (Physicians Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment) Paradigm to Improve End-of-Life Care:  Potential State Legal Barriers to Implementation.  Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Spring 2008, 119 - 140. 
  • Bomba, P.A., Vermilyea, D.  Integrating POLST Into Palliative Care Guidelines:  A Paradigm Shift in Advance Care Planning in Oncology.  Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.  2006; 4:8, 819-829.
  • View additional POLST research and references at

National Quality Forum

The National Quality Forum is a private, not-for-profit membership organization created to develop and implement a national strategy for healthcare quality measurement and reporting. The National Quality Forum has developed:
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